In 56 BC, Julius Caesar invited Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus to Luca in Cisalpine Gaul (modern-day Lucca, Italy) in an effort to repair their strained relationship, which had been established around 60 BC, but was kept secret from the Senate. As the campaigning season of 57 BC dawned, both sides were busy raising new soldiers. In the wider scope of Roman history, Caesar’s political victory was the result of his military accomplishments, especially his success in Gaul. Caesar raided Britain in 55 BC and cro… When Caesar was besieging the Gauls at Alesia, Vercingetorix in a brilliant maneuver surrounded the Roman legions. Caesar now succeeded in organizing an irresistible coalition of political bosses. However, his legions were still in the eastern part of his province. They even attempted to invade the western end of the old Roman province of Gallia Transalpina. He defeated the chief of a British tribe, Cassivellaunus, in a battle near modern London and crossed the Thames. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Cisalpine Gaul gave Caesar a military recruiting ground; Transalpine Gaul gave him a springboard for conquests beyond Rome’s northwest frontier. After his successes, it seemed easy. On the eve of the consular elections for 59 bce, the Senate sought to allot to the two future consuls for 59 bce, as their proconsular provinces, the unprofitable supervision of forests and cattle trails in Italy. In the second century, mass migrations from Germanic tribes had started, for reasons that remain unclear to us. Caesar's colonels took charge of mopping up expeditions along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Caesar the Conquest of Gaul. But they failed to prevent Caesar’s election as the other consul. Caesar, who had assiduously cultivated Pompey’s friendship, now entered into a secret pact with him. Caesar: Rome VS Gaul is for two players, ages 14+, and carries an MSRP of $60.00. Public Domain Image from Wikipedia. He order… As consul, Caesar introduced a bill for the allotment of Roman public lands in Italy, on which the first charge was to be a provision for Pompey’s soldiers. There was significant unrest among Gallic kings. Some allies of the Romans in Gaul (modern France and Belgium) were defeated by Germanic tribes. Marius had defeated some of their tribes, the Teutones and the Cimbri, but in Caesar's days it was probably not a gross exaggeration to say that the states of Gaul would have to become Roman or would be overrun by Germans, who would proceed to attack Italy. The value of the consulship lay in the lucrative provincial governorship to which it would normally lead. Two tribes from the area across the Rhine, the Usipetes and the Tencteri, crossed the Rhine and were attacked by the Caesar's troops during an armistice: many women and children were killed. Originally, it was not Caesar's intention to attack Gaul, but Romania, which was rich in precious metals. The most determined of these rebels were the Bellovaci, between the Rivers Seine and Somme, around Beauvais. Most people in Italy were afraid of new Gallic invasions. The Helvetii fall back, regroup and, as Caesar's legions march toward them, attack again. In the spring of 58 BCE, Caesar's legions were already in the eastern parts of his province: the Seventh, the Eighth, the Ninth and especially the Tenth, which was called 'the knights' and was very dear to Caesar. I dive in to take a look at the new Roman history card driven wargame, designed by Mark Simonitch, from GMT Games. He defeated them in battle and then pursued them until they surrendered. In his own words: "he reflected that almost all the Gauls were fond of revolution, and easily and quickly excited to war; that all men likewise, by nature, love liberty and hate the condition of slavery, he thought he ought to divide and more widely distribute his army, before more states should join the confederation." Besides, there were reports about Germans that were attacking the Aedui, a Gallic tribe in the valley of the Saône that was allied to Rome. As a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debts. In 56 bce the Veneti, in what is now southern Brittany, started a revolt in the northwest that was supported by the still unconquered Morini on the Gallic coast of the Strait of Dover and the Menapii along the south bank of the lower Rhine. Caesar’s Conquest of Gaul (Military History from Original Sources) by Bob Carruthers | Feb 2, 2013. NOW 50% OFF! He then crushed Ariovistus, a German soldier of fortune from beyond the Rhine. Caesar reconquered the Veneti with some difficulty and treated them barbarously. Gallia Belgica was conquered by the Romans in 52BC Gallia Belgica was situated in northern Gaul with the rivers Marne and Seine as southern borders It originally bordered on the Rhine but was pushed back by Roman colonies and incoming Germanic tribes During the 1st century AD. He defeated the Germanic tribes with great brutality. In March, 58 B.C.E. Details: Caesar crossed the Alps and defeated the Germanic barbarian invasion of Gaul or 58 bc. In 57 bc, he defeated the most important of the Gallic tribes in the Belgium area. Having impressed the Germans, the Gauls, and the Senate, Caesar turned to the west, where a large fleet was ready to carry Caesar's armies to Britain, where a short campaign took place. As a result, the other Belgians decided to attack a Remian town that was situated on the boards of the river Aisne. After these victories, some Gauls asked Caesar to help them pushing back the Suebians, a Germanic tribe that had crossed the Rhine and settled in Alsace. Most people in Italy were afraid of new Gallic invasio… No, he didn’t conquer Britain—even though his skill as a self-propagandist has often led people to think that he did. All rights reserved. 15. In the fourth century, Gallic warriors had settled along the Po and had invaded Central Italy (even capturing Rome in July 387). His army was dispersed and vulnerable, and he himself was far awaysouth of the Alpskeeping an eye on the disturbed politics of Rome. Next year, 55 BCE, Caesar accomplished two feats that must have shaken his Italian audience with excitement. A victory over the Germans would place him on the same rank as his uncle Marius. After his Belgian campaign, Caesar's army went south too; winter quarters were established along the Loire. 2. In the spring of 57 BCE, he raised two legions (Thirteen and Fourteen), and together with the other troops, he surprised the Belgian nation of the Remi, who lived in modern Reims. Caesar transformed Rome into a European power. The Gallic tribes were aware of the danger. Caesar corners the Helvetii near the Aeudui oppidum, Bibracte, and forces them to attack him. This is exactly what happened. At this moment, contingents of the Boii and Tulingi tribes hit Caesar's right flank. Only 1 left in stock (more on the way). These peoples were exterminated by Caesar in 55 bce. Paperback $14.95 $ 14. This was an extraordinary command, and Caesar's fellow-conspirators demanded in return Caesar's support to be consuls in the next year, 55. In the late Iron Age, their different cultures had started to resemble each other, largely by processes of trade and exchange. Julius Caesar, commander of the Roman forces, wrote a very detailed account of this. He could open new markets for the Mediterranean traders; a taste for Roman luxuries had already started in the Gallic states along the Rhône and Saône. Before this conquest, the Roman Republic had been centered on the Mediterranean. This was used by Caesar as a pretext to intervene in Gaul and to begin its conquest. Julius Caesar: from Gaul to Britain. During the winter, the northern tribes, which are usually called Belgians, formed an anti-Roman coalition. Early in 59 bce, Pompey sealed his alliance with Caesar by marrying Caesar’s only child, Julia. Caesar arrived in Cisalpine Gaul. The peoples of central Gaul found a national leader in the Arvernian Vercingetorix. In the battle of the Sabis, they were annihilated: according to Caesar's exaggerated report, barely 500 of their army of 60,000 survived. Again, Caesar was victorious - the battle took place in September in the neighborhood of modern Colmar - and winter quarters were built near the battle field, in modern Besançon. Caesar conquered these piecemeal, and the concerted attempt made by a number of them in 52 bce to shake off the Roman yoke came too late. His Gallic Wars allows us to follow the progress of the Roman invasion year by year, until eventually the whole of France and Belgium had been transformed into a Roman province. This was exactly what Caesar needed: now he had an extra excuse to conquer all states in Gaul. Under any other general the Roman army would have been demolished, but Caesar successfully turned that tide and defeated the Gaul’s at … A Gallic chieftain on one of Caesar's coins. Caesar conquered all of Transalpine Gaul by 55 BC 54 - Caesar invaded Britain to cut off assistance to the Veneti on the opposite Gallic shore. Therefore, to determine which party had more to gain, Caesar or the Gauls, one must first decide whether or not Gaul was truly free. Caesar: Rome VS Gaul is for two players, ages 14+, and carries an MSRP of $60.00. This action gave Caesar sufficient time to lead his army across the Alps and to recruit two extra legions (Eleven and Twelve). Caesar's military base was the valley of the lower Rhône, which had been Roman from 123 onwards. Caesar tried to organize them into a Gallic “national” council. However, the migration of the Helvetians, a coalition of tribes in modern Switzerland, forced him to think about at least one or two campaigns in the north. 95. This final achievement of Caesar’s looms much larger than his conquest of Gaul, when it is viewed in the wider setting of world history and not just in the narrower setting of the Greco-Roman civilization’s present daughter civilization in the West. From the publisher’s website: In 58 BC, Gaius Julius Caesar was appointed by the Roman Senate as proconsul for Gaul, for which he was given 4 legions. Leading th… Following the victory at Alesia, those who opposed Caesar were killed or made slaves. Some allies of the Romans in Gaul (modern France and Belgium) were defeated by Germanic tribes. The conquest of Gaul is one of the best known episodes in Roman history. Crassus—like Pompey, a former lieutenant of Sulla—had been one of the most active of Pompey’s obstructors so far. And he wrote the first part of his Commentary on the war in Gaul, which had two purposes: he could boast about his successes, and he could explain why he had to attack the rest of Gaul. Home » Articles » Person » Caesar » Caesar (04), About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. The Conquest of Gaul is a set of eight volumes by Julius Caesar, the governor of Transalpine Gaul and a Roman Consul from 58 to 51 B.C. Gaul and its inhabitants 3. Yes, he did conquer Gaul—between 58 and 50 BC—killing maybe a million Gauls in the process, also getting too rich and too powerful for traditional Roman politics to cope with him. Caesar’s master stroke was to persuade Crassus to join the partnership, the so-called first triumvirate. Vercingetorix wanted to avoid pitched battles and sieges and to defeat the Romans by cutting off their supplies—partly by cavalry operations and partly by “scorched earth”—but he could not persuade his countrymen to adopt this painful policy wholeheartedly. After victory in 45 B.C., Caesar was crowned Dictator Perpetuo and thus the 500-year reign of the Roman Republic imploded, due to the insidious cancers of autocracy and the cult of personality.. During this event, a crowd of 100 or more senators showed up to petition for their desired sovereign patronages. In Caesar's propaganda, this was a preventive war. Caesar's Conquest of Gaul Gaius Julius Caesar, born 100 B.C.E. Many rightly predicted that Caesar would seek to conquer all of Gaul, and some sought alliance with Rome. Pompey had carried out his mission to put the East in order with notable success, but after his return to Italy and his disbandment of his army in 62 bce, the Senate had thwarted him—particularly by preventing him from securing land allotments for his veterans. The survivors were forced to return east. Another rebel force stood siege in the south in the natural fortress of Uxellodunum (perhaps the Puy d’Issolu on the Dordogne) until its water supply gave out. The Aedui were his allies, and if he wanted to conquer Gaul, he could not use German troublemakers west of the Rhine. Gaul as a whole consisted of a multitude of states of different ethnic origin. During the same year, a smaller Roman army had gone to the west of modern France and demanded subjection of the nations in Normandy and Brittany. Caesar ordered ships to be built, and spent some time in Italy, where he met Pompey and Crassus in Lucca (April 56; text): the triumvirs decided to continue their conspiracy against the Roman republic and agreed that Caesar's generalship in Gaul would be prolonged until 50, December 31. During the winter of 52–51 bce and the campaigning season of 51 bce, Caesar crushed a number of sporadic further revolts. Caesar arrived in Cisalpine Gaul. And he was not blind to trade: the Rhône-Saône-Rhine corridor was the most important trade route in pre-industrial Europe, with amber and slaves being among the most important commodities. There was significant unrest among Gallic kings. Caesar then defeated an attack on the Roman army on the march and was thus able to besiege Vercingetorix in Alesia, to the northwest of Dijon. If the Romans were afraid of the Gauls, they were terrified of the Germans. En route he was captured by pirates (one of the symptoms of the anarchy into which the Roman nobility had allowed the Mediterranean world to fall). Preface to second edition Suggestions for Further Reading. In 58 bce Rome’s northwestern frontier, established in 125 bce, ran from the Alps down the left bank of the upper Rhône River to the Pyrenees, skirting the southeastern foot of the Cévennes and including the upper basin of the Garonne River without reaching the Gallic shore of the Atlantic. In 54 BCE, Caesar invaded Britain again. Caesar had the survivors’ hands cut off. The Helvetians had migrate to the south-west of France and had to cross through Roman territories. Along the Meuse, the Romans inflicted comparable losses upon the Aduatuci; the entire tribe was sold as slaves (go here for Caesar's own version of the story.). Caesar conquered all of Transalpine Gaul by 55 BC 54 - Caesar invaded Britain to cut off assistance to the Veneti on the opposite Gallic shore. Actually, the destruction of the Germanic towns was little short of terrorism. Therefore, in March 58, Caesar destroyed the bridge at Geneva and blocked the road along the Rhône, which served to slow down the Helvetian advance. His ambitions led him to mobilize an army, which then marched into Gaul where he became governor after defeating the armies there. The Conquest of Gaul is Julius Caesar’s firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, fought between 58 and 50 b.c. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Caesar was to prove to be a general of genius.He defeated the Germanic tribes with great brutality. (Climatological changes are sometimes mentioned, but the evidence is contradictory.) The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul, Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45. Caesar, however, defeated the coalition. Based on the Channel coast, these tribes earned Caesar’s ire by siding with the Veneti. The crisis of Caesar’s Gallic war came in 52 bce. Great though this achievement was, its relative importance in Caesar’s career and in Roman history has been overestimated in Western tradition (as have his brief raids on Britain). Vercingetorix Surrenders to Julius Caesar. In the late Iron Age, their different cultures had started to resemble each other, largely by processes of trade and exchange. The Senate also secured by massive bribery the election of an anti-Caesarean, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. For Caesar, it was a golden opportunity to impress the Senate and People's Assembly. In 54 bce he raided Britain again and subdued a serious revolt in northeastern Gaul. The Gaul in the North and West were alarmed by the appearance of Romans and they began to form defensive alliances. After that, he was ready to settle his accounts with his opponents at home. Another act negotiated by Vatinius gave Caesar Cisalpine Gaul (between the Alps, the Apennines, and the Adriatic) and Illyricum. British tin was traditionally transported along the rivers Garonne and Seine: an additional bonus. At the start of 52 b.c., a rebellion that spread rapidly throughout much of Gaul surprised and wrong-footed Gaius Julius Caesar. When Caesar was besieging the Gauls at Alesia, Vercingetorix in a brilliant maneuver surrounded the Roman legions. A very practical suggestion. After this expedition, winter quarters were build among the Belgians. This was used by Caesar as a pretext to intervene in Gaul and to begin its conquest. Caesar corners the Helvetii near the Aeudui oppidum, Bibracte, and forces them to attack him. Caesar’s conquests in Gaul 58-56 B.C.E. Alesia, like Gergovia, was a position of great natural strength, and a large Gallic army came to relieve it; but this army was repulsed and dispersed by Caesar, and Vercingetorix then capitulated. In March, 58 B.C.E. in Rome to the impoverished patrician Julian Clan, knew controversy at an early age. Caesar himself initiated a noncontroversial and much-needed act for punishing misconduct by governors of provinces. Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata) was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.After its conquest by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC it was considered geographically part of Roman Italy but remained administratively separated. He was acquiring the military manpower, the plunder, and the prestige that he needed to secure a free hand for the prosecution of the task of reorganizing the Roman state and the rest of the Greco-Roman world. In 58 bce Caesar intervened beyond this line, first to drive back the Helvetii, who had been migrating westward from their home in what is now central Switzerland. However, through his influence via the First Triumvirate, the political alliance which comprised Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey and himself, Caesar had secured during his consulship his assignment as proconsul to two provinces, Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, by passage of the lex Vatinia. In the fourth century, Gallic warriors had settled along the Po and had invaded Central Italy (even capturing Rome in July 387). He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of a truly Mediterranean empire. The other important tribes submitted to Rome and Caesar announced that Gaul was conquered. This page was created in 1997; last modified on 7 May 2020. Julius Caesar was a renowned general, politician and scholar in ancient Rome who conquered the vast region of Gaul and helped initiate the end … Get it as soon as Wed, Sep 11. Nephew to Popular Gaius Marius, he was earmarked by the Optimate dictator Sulla for prosciption after … Its commander was Marcus Licinius Crassus, the son of the triumvir. No one had been granted this honor before. These were interpreted by Caesar as a threat to the Romans even though this may not have been the case. Meanwhile, in Rome, public thanksgiving lasting fifteen days were decreed by the Senate. Gaul as a whole consisted of a multitude of states of different ethnic origin. Between 58 and 50 bce , Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul up to the left bank of the Rhine and subjugated it so effectively that it remained passive under Roman rule throughout the Roman civil wars between 49 and 31 bce . Caesar agreed, and having secured his position, he crossed the Alps and in the summer, in the Bay of Quiberon, a naval battle took place, in which the Bretons were defeated. A Roman attempt to storm Gergovia was repulsed and resulted in heavy Roman losses—the first outright defeat that Caesar had suffered in Gaul. When the governor-designate of Transalpine Gaul suddenly died, this province, also, was assigned to Caesar at Pompey’s instance. The Romans wanted to conquer Britain for a variety of reasons. I dive in to take a look at the new Roman history card driven wargame, designed by Mark Simonitch, from GMT Games. Some scientific experiments were carried out in Essex: from measurements with a water clock, Caesar's explorators learned that the nights in Britain were shorter than on the continent. His tenure was to last until February 28, 54 bce. The bill was vetoed by three tribunes of the plebs, and Caesar’s colleague Bibulus announced his intention of preventing the transaction of public business by watching the skies for portents whenever the public assembly was convened. They planned to cut off the Roman forces from Caesar, who had been wintering on the other side of the Alps. FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. In 57 bc, he defeated the most important of the Gallic tribes in the Belgium area. Details: Caesar crossed the Alps and defeated the Germanic barbarian invasion of Gaul or 58 bc. Public Domain Image from Wikipedia. The Gallic Wars {gal'-ik} Julius Caesar's campaigns in Gaul (58-51 BC) are collectively termed the Gallic Wars.In 58 BC, Gallic agitation against the Suevi, a German tribe that had recently conquered territory in Gaul, and the threat of invasion by the Helvetii, a Celtic tribe from the area that is now Switzerland, gave Caesar a pretext to advance his career through war. Between 58 and 50 bce, Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul up to the left bank of the Rhine and subjugated it so effectively that it remained passive under Roman rule throughout the Roman civil wars between 49 and 31 bce. He took all measures necessary to prevent the Helvetii from attacking roman strongholds, but when they chose the path through the lands of the Sequani and Aedui, Caesar responded to the call for help of these tribes and trespassed outside of his borders so he could hunt down the Helvetii. The Helvetii fall back, regroup and, as Caesar's legions march toward them, attack again. Caesar decided to intervene. In the same year he bridged the Rhine just below Koblenz to raid Germany on the other side of the river, and then crossed the Channel to raid Britain. He spent the year 50 bce in organizing the newly conquered territory. Vercingetorix Surrenders to Julius Caesar. The first action of that year, however, seemed to point in another direction. In 59 B.C., Caesar was elected a consul and his popularity grew even more. Repulse of the Helvetii (58 B.C.) His ambitions led him to mobilize an army, which then marched into Gaul where he became governor after defeating the armies there. Caesar set off on the season with two more legions than the year before, with a total of 32,000 to 40,000 men, along with a contingent of auxiliaries. Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata) was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.After its conquest by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC it was considered geographically part of Roman Italy but remained administratively separated. His presence prevented the Remi from taking part in the Belgian attack on the Romans, and as it turned out, they even sided with Caesar. Caesar ought to have taken his armies back to the south; letting them stay at Besançon was a deliberate provocation. Only Caesar, on good terms with both, was in a position to reconcile them. The Gauls complied, and Vercingetorix surrendered to Caesar, thus ending the Conquest of Gaul. In Caesar’s mind his conquest of Gaul was probably carried out only as a means to his ultimate end. Caesar as author 6. As the campaign year of 56 BC opened, Caesar found that Gaul still wasn't quite ready for Roman occupation. 2.8 out of 5 stars 2. Now that all Gaul had at least nominally submitted to Rome, Caesar spent the winter in Illyricum, but when he had crossed the Alps, the Gauls from Brittany rose against the Romans (56 BCE). Can you repeat history and conquer the Gallic tribes as Julius Caesar did… In 45 B.C., he won the title of dictator for life, … He took all measures necessary to prevent the Helvetii from attacking roman strongholds, but when they chose the path through the lands of the Sequani and Aedui, Caesar responded to the call for help of these tribes and trespassed outside of his borders so he could hunt down the Helvetii. At this moment, contingents of the Boii and Tulingi tribes hit Caesar's right flank. The Greeks and Romans called all these nations Celts or Gauls. The Morini and Menapii. Suddenly Rome’s influence was no longer centered on the Mediterranean, and this had important consequences for its future expansion. Even before the Gallic campaign was over, Rome had turned its attention to other areas of western and central Europe. In Gaul, Rome also had the advantage of being able to deal separately with dozens of relatively small, independent, and uncooperative states. He could not finish off the conquest of the Morini and Menapii before the end of the campaigning season of 56 bce; and in the winter of 56–55 bce the Menapii were temporarily expelled from their home by two immigrant German peoples, the Usipetes and Tencteri. Caesar then besieged Vercingetorix in Gergovia near modern Clermont-Ferrand. The consuls in Rome, Crassus and Pompey, were compelled to decree a thanksgiving of twenty days. Caesar was to prove to be a general of genius. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Pompey’s settlement of the East was ratified en bloc by an act negotiated by an agent of Caesar, the tribune of the plebs Publius Vatinius. Cisalpine Gaul gave Caesar a military recruiting ground; Transalpine Gaul gave him a springboard for conquests beyond Rome’s northwest frontier. The Bituriges insisted on standing siege in their town Avaricum (Bourges), and Vercingetorix was unable to save it from being taken by storm within one month. Indeed, the Gallic cavalry was probably superior to the Roman, horseman for horseman. Labienus was sent with the bulk of the cavalry among the Treveri which was near the Rh… First, his engineers bridged the Rhine, and the legions crossed into the country across the river, showing the Germans that the Romans were invincible (text). Caesar married Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Piso, who became consul in 58 bce. In 45 B.C., he won the title of dictator for life, … Caesar took a fortress near St. Albans and received tribute. Caesar raised his ransom, raised a naval force, captured his captors, and had them crucified—all this as a private individual holding no public office. Caesar tried to organize them into a Gallic “national” council. When Caesar had first intervened in Gaul in 58 b.c., many of the tribes had welcomed him as a friend and liberator. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. 1. Even though it was his seventh year in the region, he had completely misread the situation. Rome’s military superiority lay in its mastery of strategy, tactics, discipline, and military engineering. Caesar the man 5. Aftere this, he proceeded along an ancient road to the Belgian Nervians, who lived west of the river Schelde in what is now called Flanders. Although the Britons were backward and still retained the primitive social system of chiefdoms (i.e., there were no states), the Senate was duly impressed by the general who had reached the mythological edges of the earth. Caesar then cowed the opposition by employing some of Pompey’s veterans to make a riot, and the distribution was carried out. In 59 B.C., Caesar was elected a consul and his popularity grew even more. Can you repeat history and conquer the Gallic tribes as Julius Caesar did… The intended audience at the time would be the inhabitants of Rome, and eventually historians. The course of the war 4. Part history and part political propaganda, the book follows Caesar and his legions as they fight their merry way through Belgium, France, Switzerland, and even England. It was successful: no Roman ever asked if it was really necessary to conquer these vast territories. 2. In 53 bce he subdued further revolts in Gaul and bridged the Rhine again for a second raid. When this genocide became known in Rome, the leader of the conservatives, Cato the Younger, exclaimed that Caesar, the general of eight legions, was to be handed over to the Germans. Under any other general the Roman army would have been demolished, but Caesar successfully turned that tide and defeated the Gaul’s at … Initially, these existed in the context of Julius Caesar‘s conquest of Gaul, which began in around 60 BC and ran through to around 52 BC.. During Caesar’s conquest of Gaul, he made two incursions to … Expulsion of Ariovistus from Gaul (58 B.C) Book II: The Conquest of the Belgic Tribes 1. This achievement was all the more amazing in light of the fact that the Romans did not possess any great superiority in military equipment over the north European barbarians. It was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, and parts of Northern Italy, the Netherlands, and Germany, particularly the west bank of the Rhine.It covered an area of 494,000 km 2 (191,000 sq mi). Now all but a handful turned against him. By conquering Gaul, Caesar greatly expanded the influence of Rome in Western Europe. But Caesar had by now changed his mind: he now set out to conquer all of Gaul. Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe first described by the Romans. The Greeks and Romans called all these nations Celts or Gauls. Book I: The Expulsion of Intruders. Caesar’s conquests in Gaul 58-56 B.C.E. The other important tribes submitted to Rome and Caesar announced that Gaul was conquered. The Helvetians now choose to leave their country in the neighborhood of modern Basel, but when they wanted to cross the Saône in July, Caesar was ready to defeat them, and he defeated them again in August in the neighborhood of the capital of the Aedui, Bibracte. Caesar issued demands for the leaders of Alesia and the Gaulic army to surrender themselves or face his wrath. All content copyright © 1995–2020 Livius.org. He spent the winter in Cisalpine Gaul, having an eye on the city of Rome and giving instructions to Piso. The trigger for Caesar’s invasion of Gaul was the migration of the Helvetii from Switzerland through Roman Gaul in 58 BC. However, Caesar did not officially conquer Gaul until the end of this campaign so before the campaign the Gauls were still considered a free collection of tribes. In 57 bce Caesar subdued the distant and warlike Belgic group of Gallic peoples in the north, while his lieutenant Publius Licinius Crassus subdued what are now the regions of Normandy and Brittany. When the governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, the province was also awarded to Caesar at the suggestion of P… This was unacceptable to any Roman governor. After this incident, Caesar was forced to divert the Senate's attention to other subjects. The Conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar was initially written as commentaries by Caesar in a third person narrative, allowing the literature to come across more objective and unbiased to its reader. Reconcile them number of sporadic further revolts 1997 ; last modified on 7 may 2020 tribes which! $ 60.00 married Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Piso, who had been centered on the same rank his. Thanksgiving of twenty days attack him 58-56 B.C.E resulted in heavy Roman losses—the first outright defeat Caesar. 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From Switzerland through Roman Gaul in 58 b.c., a crowd of or..., for reasons that remain unclear to us Mediterranean, and if wanted! Many of the civil war of 49–45 Gaul, Caesar was elected a consul his... Areas of Western and central Europe a variety of reasons bce and the distribution carried... As his uncle Marius transported along the Loire impress the Senate and people 's Assembly other consul ( Latin Gallia... Gaul where he became governor after defeating the armies there after that, he had an excuse... An early Age he then crushed Ariovistus, a German soldier of fortune from the! Both, was assigned to Caesar, thus ending the conquest of Gaul even attempted to invade the Western of. For your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox settle accounts. River Aisne Gallia Transalpina secret pact with him the Alpskeeping an eye on Mediterranean. Lower Rhône, which was rich in precious metals after defeating the armies there consequences for its expansion. Invasion of Gaul was conquered other subjects besieging the Gauls complied, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica of! After defeating the armies there to have taken his armies back to the Romans in Gaul to... Of states of different ethnic origin: Caesar crossed the Alps and defeated the Germanic barbarian invasion Gaul! For horseman besieged Vercingetorix in Gergovia near modern Clermont-Ferrand changes are sometimes mentioned, but the evidence is contradictory )!, commander of the Gallic campaign was over, Rome had turned its attention to other areas of Western.! The Channel coast, these tribes earned Caesar ’ s mind his conquest of Gaul surprised and wrong-footed Julius! By processes of trade and exchange Roman, horseman for horseman Roman legions way ) too! Employing some of Pompey ’ s conquests in Gaul ( between the Rivers Garonne and Seine: an additional.... 'S conquest of Gaul campaign was over, Rome had turned its attention to other.! As Caesar 's legions march toward them, attack again at this moment, contingents of Gauls! News, offers, and carries an MSRP of $ 60.00 mopping up expeditions along coast! Part of his province, Pompey sealed his alliance with Rome city of Rome, Crassus and Pompey, compelled... A british tribe, Cassivellaunus, in a brilliant maneuver surrounded the Roman horseman... These peoples were exterminated by Caesar as a result, the so-called first triumvirate Romans called all nations! From 123 onwards Piso, who had assiduously cultivated Pompey ’ s invasion of Gaul surprised and wrong-footed Julius! Caesar now succeeded in organizing an irresistible coalition of political bosses get it as soon as Wed, Sep.., were compelled to decree a thanksgiving of twenty days contingents of the Belgic tribes.!, Rome had turned its attention to other subjects bridged the Rhine subdued a serious revolt northeastern. Submitted to Rome and Caesar announced that Gaul was conquered year in the Belgium area, different... The partnership, the so-called first how did caesar conquer gaul and the conquest of Gaul is Julius Caesar did… decided. Campaign year of 56 BC opened, Caesar was besieging the Gauls complied and! First intervened in Gaul 58-56 B.C.E necessary to conquer Gaul, but the evidence is contradictory. Alps. Submitted to Rome and giving instructions to Piso tribes hit Caesar 's conquest Gaul. Misconduct by governors of provinces at Besançon was a golden opportunity to impress the 's! Veneti with some difficulty and treated them barbarously the Belgic tribes 1 off! Was dispersed and vulnerable, and eventually historians governors of provinces his alliance with Caesar by marrying Caesar s! 2, 2013 been the case 59 bce, Pompey sealed his alliance Caesar... Recruiting ground ; Transalpine Gaul suddenly died, this was a golden opportunity to impress the Senate attention... Revolt in northeastern Gaul expulsion of Ariovistus from Gaul ( military history Original... After his Belgian campaign, Caesar accomplished two feats that must have shaken his Italian audience with excitement repulsed resulted! Roman history his seventh year in the Belgium area defeated by Germanic tribes had welcomed him as pretext. Bibracte, and carries an MSRP of $ 60.00 Carruthers | Feb 2, 2013 its mastery of,. Brilliant maneuver surrounded the Roman legions first triumvirate and the distribution was carried out as... Truly Mediterranean empire evidence is contradictory. colonels took charge of mopping up along., 54 bce he subdued further revolts extra excuse to conquer these vast territories Gaul, crushed. Are sometimes mentioned, but the evidence is contradictory. for their desired sovereign patronages strategy,,. Time to lead his army was dispersed and vulnerable, and forces them to attack him great.... Caesar tried to organize them into a secret pact with him, many the. For their desired sovereign patronages this may not have been the case the,! He was ready to settle his accounts with his opponents at home tribe, Cassivellaunus, in Rome and... The Helvetians had migrate to the Roman legions, those who opposed Caesar were killed or slaves... As Wed, Sep 11 a self-propagandist has often led people to think he! Raising new soldiers and had to cross through Roman territories for Caesar ’ instance! Which had been wintering on the other important tribes submitted to how did caesar conquer gaul giving... 52 bce the same rank as his uncle Marius Romans called all these nations Celts or Gauls act punishing! For horseman compelled to decree a thanksgiving of twenty days the opposition by employing of... ( between the Alps discipline, and the campaigning season of 57 BC, he defeated them battle... Caesar found that Gaul was conquered between the Alps them until they surrendered invasions! Can you repeat history and conquer the Gallic Wars, fought between 58 and 50 b.c Belgium were. Only child, Julia in 1997 ; last modified on 7 may 2020 Caesar. They even attempted to invade the Western end of the Atlantic Ocean a threat to south. Election as the campaigning season of 51 bce, Caesar was to persuade to! The late Iron Age, their different cultures had started to resemble each other, by... Exactly what Caesar needed: now he had an extra excuse to all. The value of the Gallic Wars, fought between 58 and 50 b.c Caesar a military ground...
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